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Dextromethorphan, or DXM, is a common over-the-counter cough suppressant medication contained in many cold and flu preparations, such as:
Antitussive medications containing DXM are relatively safe when taken as intended; however, when taken at higher doses, they may produce euphoric and even hallucinogenic effects. This may make them popular drugs of abuse for adolescents and young adults.
The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) publishes that DXM cold and cough products are the most commonly abused over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. According to the 2015 Monitoring the Future Survey published by NIDA, almost 5 percent of high school seniors had abused OTC cough medications in the past year. Results published in the journal Clinical Toxicologyshow that teenagers between the ages of 15 and 19 are the most likely age group to abuse DXM medications, as indicated by a large number of poison control center calls resulting from DXM abuse.
These products can be purchased at the local drug store, meaning that they may be readily accessible. Although national legislation may be in the works to restrict the sale of DXM-containing products, of which there are more than 100, the Consumer Healthcare Products Association (CHPA) reports that several states now ban the sale of these products to minors. Abuse of DXM-containing medications is often referred to as skittling, dexing, robo-fizzing, robo-dosing, or robo-tripping.
Abusing DXM products may create a number of behavioral, emotional, social, and physical health problems, including addiction.
The drug is also known by the following names:
When used recreationally, dextromethorphan may produce different effects depending on how much was taken. For instance, in small doses, it may produce a pleasant “high,” as well as psychedelic and mild stimulating effects, while in higher doses, a kind of dissociation from the self may occur. In even larger doses, sensory perceptions are altered and full-blown psychosis may occur, the journal Primary Psychiatryreports. DXM may mimic the dissociative drug PCP (phencyclidine) when taken in large amounts.
DXM products are generally ingested, or swallowed when abused, as they come in liquid or tablet form. They are quickly absorbed by the gastrointestinal system with effects typically lasting about six hours, the Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine (JABFM) publishes. Someone taking more than the recommended dose for use as a cough or cold medication may experience effects similar to those brought on by MDMA, or ecstasy. Higher doses may cause an intoxication similar to being stoned or drunk, and even higher doses may have effects resembling effects from PCP or ketamine.
Signs of DXM intoxication may include:
Abusing a drug like DXM makes changes in the way the brain feels pleasure by temporarily increasing the amount of the neurotransmitter dopamine along the central nervous system. DXM may also increase blood pressure and heart rate. These changes may be particularly alarming in young people, as the regions of the brain that are involved in reward processing, willpower, emotional regulation, and decision-making abilities may be negatively impacted by DXM abuse before these parts of the brain are fully developed.
The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) reports that a greater percentage of adults aged 18 and older who battle illicit drug or alcohol abuse or dependency began abusing a substance, such as alcohol or marijuana, prior to age 15 than those who were aged 18 or older before abusing substances. Abusing DXM even once can have negative side effects, and abusing it more often creates numerous risk factors.
If people are abusing DXM, discarded cold or cough medication packages may be evident in their trash, and they may be seen taking these medications without a medical reason to do so. DXM may be ordered over the Internet and shipped from foreign countries directly to individuals within the United States. It may come in the form of a white powder. White powder residue and suspicious packages in the mail may be indicators of DXM abuse as may financial strain and trouble with the law.
Potentially two of the biggest concerns of DXM abuse are the risk for a life-threatening overdose and the development of an addiction to the drug. An overdose occurs when levels of the drug reach toxic amounts in the bloodstream, and the body can no longer metabolize it, which may result in serious health problems or even death. Symptoms of a DXM overdose include:
The National Capital Poison Center (NCPC) reports that DXM abuse results in around 6,000 emergency department visits each year, and half of these visits are for individuals between the ages of 12 and 25 years old.
DXM may be hazardous to abuse on its own, but when mixed with other substances, the risk factors increase. Adding other drugs or alcohol may greatly enhance the chance for an adverse reaction or life-threatening overdose. Products containing DXM may also contain other substances, such as acetaminophen, which is a pain reliever, and when abused regularly, acetaminophen may cause liver damage. Individuals with underlying mental health concerns may have symptoms increased by DXM abuse as well.
Addiction is another potential side effect of repeated DXM abuse. When brain chemistry is altered by drugs, it may become difficult to feel pleasure without the drug’s presence, which may lead to drug cravings. This can encourage someone to want to take more of the drug to keep feeling good.
When people are addicted to DXM, they may spend most of their time trying to get it, using it, or recovering from its use. They may not have control over the amount, or duration, of their drug abuse. DXM abuse may become compulsive and may take the place of other activities. Social withdrawal, erratic behavior, mood swings, increased secrecy, denial that a problem exists, lack of interest in most things, dipping grades or drop in work production, increased risk-taking behaviors, and an inability to count on people to fulfill their obligations may be common indicators of addiction. Changes in physical appearance, like weight gain or loss, lack of interest in personal hygiene and changes in sleeping and eating patterns, may be additional signs of addiction to DXM or other drugs.
As a dissociative drug, DXM addiction may be initially treated through medical detox. Medications, such as antipsychotics, may be used as the drug is purged from the body in a secure environment monitored by medical professionals 24 hours a day. Individuals who have been abusing large amounts of DXM for a significant amount of time, who have a family history of substance abuse or addiction, as well as those who may abuse additional mind-altering substances or battle mental illness, may be more severely dependent on DXM and benefit greatly from medical detox.
Someone who abuses DXM on a more casual level, and is not be dependent or addicted to it, may not need medical detox and may be able to detox on an outpatient basis. Once a level of physical stabilization has been reached, the psychological aspects of addiction and substance abuse can be identified and addressed.
Treatment for DXM abuse or addiction may be either residential or outpatient. Since no two people will experience addiction in exactly the same way, what works for one person may not be as effective for someone else. For example, an individual who is not dependent on DXM and who has a strong support system at home may do well in outpatient treatment while someone else may benefit from the more comprehensive nature of residential treatment.
Both outpatient and residential substance abuse treatment are likely to include group and individual therapy sessions, counseling, support group meetings, educational opportunities, life skills training, and alternative or holistic treatments. Behavioral therapies work to understand the causes of substance abuse and help a person make positive changes for a sustained recovery. Peer groups and 12-Step programs often provide a supportive network that can extend throughout recovery. There are several options for treating DXM abuse and/or addiction, and trained professionals can help families and loved ones choose the optimal level of care for a healthy and happy future.
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